GK Articles


The National Flag was adopted by the Constituent Assembly of India on July 22nd, 1947, and presented to the nation at the midnight session of the Assembly on 14th August, 1947, on behalf of the women of India. The flag was unfurled on Parliament House.

Background : The tricolor flag was first born in the All India Congress Committee (AICC) meeting at Bezwada in 1912, when a flag was shown by an Andhra youth and improved by Mahatma Gandhi with the addition of a white band and Chakra

Dimension : The ratio of the width (proportion) of the flag to its length is 2:3. All the three bands are of equal width with deep saffron at the top, white in the middle and dark green at the bottom.

Wheel : In the center of the white band is a wheel in navy blue color. The design of the wheel is that of the abacus of the Sarnath Lion Capitol. Its diameter approximates the width of the white band and it has 24 spokes.


Saffron : Signifies courage and sacrifice

White : Signifies truth and peace

Green : Signifies faith and chivalry

The wheel symbolizes India’s ancient culture, dynamism and peaceful change, and is adopted from the Dharma Chakra of Emperor Ashoka

Even an unusable National Flag cannot be destroyed. There is a code as to how to put aside the unusable National Flag prescribed by the government.


The National Emblem and Seal of the Government of India is a replica of the Capitol of Ashoka’s Pillar at Sarnath. In the original capitol of the stone pilla, four lions are carved outstanding back to back. In the emblem, however, only three lions are visible as it appears in print, the fourth one remains hidden from the view.

The capitol is mounted on an abacus (base plate). There is a Dharma Chakra in the centre of the base plate, on the right of which is a figure of a bull and on the left that of a horse. There is an inscription in Devanagari script, a quotation from the Mundak Upanishad below the base plate which reads ‘Satya Meva Jayate’ which means ‘Truth Alone Triumphs’.


Composer : Rabindranath Tagore in 1911

First Sung : 27 Dec, 1911, during the Indian National Congress Session at Calcutta

When Adopted : 24 Jan, 1950, by the Constituent Assembly of India

English Translation : Rendered by Tagore himself in 1919, under the title ‘Morning Song of India’

Playing Time : About 52 seconds for the full version.

Background : It was originally composed in Bengali language and first published in January 1912, under the title

‘Bharat Vidhata’ in Tatva-Bodhini Patrika edited by Tagore himself. The complete song consists of 5 stanzas. However, the first stanza has been adopted by the defence forces of India to be Sung on all ceremonial occasions and it constitutes the full version of the National Anthem.


Composer : Bankimchandra Chatterjee

First Sung : 1896 sessions of Indian National Congress

When Adopted : 24 January 1950, along with the National Anthem

English Translation : Rendered by Sri Aurobindo

Background : Both the National Song and the National Anthem were adopted together and have equal status. It has been taken from Bankimchandra Chatterjee’s novel Ananda Math published in 1882. It has been a source of inspiration to the people in their struggle for freedom.


At the time of Independence, the Government of India followed the Gregorian calendar based on Christian era. From 22 March 1957, (Saka 1879) a unified Indian National Calendar to be used for official purposes was introduced based on the Saka era which began with vernal equinox of AD 78.

Chaitra is the first month and Phalguna is the last month of the Saka year. The normal Saka year has 365 days and the dates of the Saka year have permanent correspondence with the dates of the Gregorian calendar, Chaitra 1 falls on 22 March in a normal year and on 21 March in a leap year.

Use of National Calendar: Is used for the following official purposes of the Govt of India:

  • Gazette of India
  • News broadcasts Akashwani
  • Communications addressed to the public by the Govt of India
  • It is issued by Government of India

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